July 26, 2017

Demand " Internal Democracy" from all Baloch Groups


Source: Baloch Youth Network

Internal democracy which means that people who lead parties must be elected democratically within their parties. All groups aspiring to manage and direct public affairs shall have internal democracy.

The world is rapidly changing with technology, communication, innovation, global best practices, and Baloch people  as a part of the global community cannot afford to lag behind.

If one start comparing Baloch political  parties we often see Sardars are  the sole head till they pass on the baton to next generation. Common Baloch, whether or not they are aware of the fact that  political parties’ should have internal democracy is debatable.

The concept of internal democracy operates on the premise of due process, fair play, equity and good conscience in the discharge of duties and obligations to organizations, groups or the society at large. In modern societies, the application of the concept of internal democracy in the conduct of the business of political parties,  is inviolable and, therefore, sacrosanct.

It is very important that parties must have internal democracy which means that people who lead parties must be elected democratically within their parties. All groups aspiring to manage and direct public affairs shall have internal democracy.

All major Baloch Political groups are formed by Sardars and headed by them. This is a fact known to all in Balochistan, whether the group is overground or underground. Majority of workers are from poor and middle class youth who toil for the party. However, all groups lack proper internal democracy. Only Sardars and their sons remain as head of the group for life, and next level of leaders are changed as musical chairs as per whims and wishes of Sardars. Sardars do not conform to democratic principles in their internal organization and practice, they will remain head of the party despite of any party Constitution. This is the tragedy of Baloch people who do not get due share is decision making process and agenda setting.

Lack of internal democracy cause divisions not only within the group but the Baloch nation as a whole. An organized group of people with a manifesto/agenda which they sell to the people and as a result of which people invest faith and join group and work, should be Democratic rather than autocratic and family affairs.

When Baloch political groups are democratic and stable, so will the Baloch Nation. Therefore, the culture of free and fair elections must be entrenched within the  Baloch groups and parties. A group or party  that cannot have internal democracy cannot lead the Baloch Movement democratically because you cannot give what you do not have. Same logic applies in free and Independent Baloch nation.Internal democracy within political parties and organisation is important requisite for national democracy, stability and Development.

Some of the consequences of not having internal democracy are, as a research report said – It is very difficult to remove party leaders; there is little discussion or consultation with ordinary members when setting the party agenda; young politicians find it difficult to climbthe ranks, and the influence of family connections remains powerful.
Absence of internal democracy in the affairs of political parties robs the society of competent, diligent and transparent leadership as products of unjust and undemocratic leaders can only give what they have.

Democracy, like charity, should begin at home and political parties ought to have imbibed the concept of democracy internally and not through the back door. 
We common Baloch people should start noiseless,  “Silent revolution”, to accomplish our objective of shaking and dismantling this status quo. Below are few steps to be taken by all freedom loving Baloch people.

🔷 Do not think from your tribe perspective, instead think as a Baloch. Change your mindset.

🔷 Do not join and support Groups and Parties headed by Sardars.

🔷Do not Join or support any groups which does not have a Constitution and inner democracy ,compliance.

🔷 Do not Vote for Sardars  and their party Representatives in elections.

🔷 Do not attend any meetings called by Sardars

🔷 Do not Donate funds to Sardar Groups.

🔷 Support and encourage poor and middle class educated leaders or youth in  forming political groups, discussion clubs that has internal democracy. Donate generously to such groups and leaders.

🔷 Build network of youth around the world and encourage them to get trained and develop leadership skills. 

Baloch people should start Dialogue on Political Parties and groups’ Internal Democracy. Ultimate goal of Baloch common people and leaders should be to take control of Baloch leadership from corrupt Sardars.The central theme of the dialogue should be internal democracy, accountability and compliance to Constitution of party. This will start political parties’ intra-party democratic processes, internal systems and practices for the betterment of Baloch society.

Finally we Baloch should learn something  from India.  

Internal democracy in any party is important. It is because of this that in the BJP a tea seller became the Prime Minister.”

Political parties without internal democracy and principals cannot govern the country and the states in the right manner..

“Political parties who do not have internal democracy can never contribute towards making democracy stronger in the country.”

Here’s Why The South China Sea Dispute Will Continue To Haunt Philippine-China Relations


A year after the Hague ruled in favor of his country, there’s only so much Philippine President Duterte can do to minimize tensions.

07/25/2017 09:09 am ET


One year on, quarrels here remain.

MANILA, Philippines ― A year has passed since the South China Sea arbitration case at The Hague, and many are still wondering whether the Philippines has benefited from the landmark award at all. Despite Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s best efforts to downplay territorial disputes with China in favor of stronger strategic and economic ties, the South China Sea continues to haunt bilateral relations between the two neighbors. 


Beyond Manila’s wildest dreams, the arbitral tribunal, which was constituted under Article 287, Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or UNCLOS, ruled heavily against China. It nullified China’s doctrine of ”historic rights,” which has served as the foundation of Beijing’s expansive nine-dash line claims across much of the South China Sea basin.

According to the tribunal, China’s claims, based on pre-modern maps and historical events, are “incompatible” with prevailing international law, especially since “there was no evidence that China had historically exercised exclusive control over the waters or their resources” in the South China Sea. The decision went a step further, censuring China for “violat[ing] the Philippines’ sovereign rights,” specifically by coercively preventing the Southeast Asian country from exploiting hydrocarbon deposits and fisheries stock within its own exclusive economic zone, or EEZ.

Many are still wondering whether the Philippines has benefited from the landmark award at all.

Contrary to China’s claims, the tribunal also ruled that there were no naturally formed “islands” in the Spratly chain, thus none of the contested land features can generate their own EEZs. The tribunal also ruled against China’s massive reclamation activities in the area, describing them as “incompatible with the obligations” of member states, especially because they “inflicted irreparable harm to the maritime environment” as well as “destroyed evidence of the natural condition of features” in the area.

In legal terms, the verdict is final and binding, per Article 296 as well as Article 11 of Annex VII of the convention. Predictably, China first adopted the ”three no’s” attitude of non-recognition, non-participation and non-compliance towards the decision, which it dismissed as “null and void” and “nothing more than a piece of paper.”

As months went by, China tried to bury the issue altogether as if the arbitration proceedings never happened, while proposing to set up its own international arbitration bodies as an alternative to the supposedly Western-dominated courts under the existing global order. Beijing also proceeded with a systematic campaign to denigrate, distort and delegitimize not only the arbitral tribunal, but also its panel of judges. It even threatened to withdraw from UNCLOS altogether, while managing to convince, cajole and pressure many countries, including several members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, to downplay, dismiss or ignore the award.

The Obama administration, which strongly supported the Philippines’ legal warfare strategy, also took a soft position. It called for calm and patience while deploying then-National Security Adviser Susan Rice to Beijing to ease China’s nerves. With the exception of Japan and Australia, which categorically called for complaisance by both parties, few countries fully stood by the Philippines’ side.


China’s ace in the hole has been Rodrigo Duterte.

Yet China’s ace in the hole was none other than Rodrigo Duterte, the newly inaugurated president of the Philippines, who immediately took a different line on the disputes. Instead of celebrating the country’s undisputed victory against China, Duterte made it clear that he wasn’t interested in flaunting the verdict, and wanted to focus on a soft landing in the South China Sea.

Then-Philippine Foreign Secretary Perfecto Yasay Jr. immediately called for “restraint and sobriety.” In succeeding months, Duterte dispatched former Philippine President Fidel V. Ramos to restore bilateral diplomatic ties with China. This paved the way for Duterte’s state visit to Beijing last October, in which he declared his preference for strategic “separation” from the United States in favor of new alliances with China and Russia.

As a gesture of goodwill, Duterte refused to raise the arbitration award in regional fora, including in ASEAN, which he currently chairs. He even blocked any criticism of China’s massive reclamation activities and establishment of military facilities in the Spratly chain of islands, where the Philippines controls up to nine land features, including Thitu Island.

Instead of celebrating the country’s victory against China, Duterte made it clear that he wasn’t interested in flaunting the verdict.

Duterte also canceled various joint military exercises with the United States in the South China Sea, while nixing initial plans for joint patrols in the area. In exchange, China has offered a multi-billion dollar package of infrastructure investment and a $500 million loan to the Philippines’ military.

Since then, the two countries have rapidly normalized their bilateral relations, upgraded investment ties, and are currently contemplating tightening defense relations. Pleased with the direction of bilateral relations, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi described bilateral relations with the Philippines as entering a “golden period of fast development.”

As Manila marked the first anniversary of the arbitration award, newly-installed Foreign Affairs Secretary Alan Peter Cayetano maintained that “the ongoing territorial dispute in the [South China Sea] should further be resolved in a manner consistent with the spirit of good neighborly relations.” Philippine ambassador to China Jose Santiago “Chito” Santa Romana emphasized the importance of “pragmatism” given the necessity to bridge differences, rather than just focusing on principle alone.


Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi (R) and Philippine Foreign Affairs Secretary Alan Peter Cayetano. June 29, 2017.

Yet, Duterte’s soft-pedaling has provoked heavy criticism from several quarters at home. Philippine Supreme Court Justice Antonio Carpio, who played an advisory role in the arbitration award, described the government’s approach as lacking “discernible direction, coherence or vision.”

And Duterte’s controversial remarks, particularly the late 2016 announcement  that he “will set aside the arbitral ruling,” have been a source of concern among those who view Philippine foreign policy as too acquiescent towards China.

“This incident [Duterte’s remark] graphically explains Philippine foreign policy on the South China Sea dispute after the arbitral ruling,” Carpio lamented during a high-profile symposium marking the first anniversary of the arbitration award.

Duterte’s soft-pedaling has provoked heavy criticism from several quarters at home.

“The Duterte administration refused to celebrate the ruling, even though the ruling legally secured for the Philippines a vast maritime zone larger than the total land area of the Philippines,” he continued. The influential magistrate has enjoined the government to consider, among other things, filing additional arbitration cases against China if the latter continues to ignore the ruling.

Other influential members of the defense establishment, including former Philippine Foreign Affairs Secretary Albert del Rosario, have echoed his criticisms in recent months, much to the chagrin of the president. Even some experts, such as Jay Batongbacal, the country’s leading maritime law expert, have accused the government of softening its position in exchange for Chinese investments.

So far, the Philippines has only managed to secure a provisional and limited modus vivendi with China in the South China Sea. Filipino fishermen have been allowed to operate in the immediate vicinity of the hotly contested Scarborough Shoal, which is currently under the administrative control of Chinese coast guard vessels.


Satellite image of Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea. 2017.

But they haven’t been allowed to enter the lagoon within the shoal, which is rich in fisheries stock and serves as a crucial rest, repair and recuperation spot for fishermen, especially during stormy seasons. Many experts are also skeptical whether the recently agreed upon outline of a framework for a code of conduct in the South China Sea will have any consequential impact on China’s activities in the area.

In the meantime, China continues to expand its military footprint across disputed land features, provoking anxieties among the Philippines defense-intelligentsia-media establishment. There are worries about the possibility of China building structures on the Scarborough Shoal as well as expanding its areas of claim into the Philippines’ eastern shores, particularly Benham Rise.

What happens next remains to be seen, but it is clear that in the coming months and years, Duterte is bound to face growing pressure to raise the arbitration award in bilateral and multilateral fora.

#ChinaVsJinping : Crackdown on PLA's Human Organ Trade & Business Empire


Source: News Bharati English25 Jul 2017 08:25:40

Vinay Joshi

Part - 02

In an exercise to explore bone of contentions between Chinese president Xi Jinping and People’s Liberation Army- PLA/ Communist Party leaders, we have seen how Jinping is taking sweeping actions against political and military heavyweights. In Part 01 we have analysed profiles of the bigwigs which are stripped off of their positions and prosecuted by Jinping in goring mode. Jinping's so-called anti-corruption drive tossed and trounced Communist leaders and military/ paramilitary commanders with surgical precision and lightning speed, establishing his full command over Chinese politico-military ruling structure. Latest causality of the drive is politburo member Sun Zhengcai, which was assumed as future Chinese President.

In this second part, we will look at once sprawling Military Medical Inc. in the form of illicit, brazen and inhuman organ transplant industry, Business Empire of People’s Liberation Army spread across all verticals and laterals on which Jinping cracked the whip annoying PLA commanders and depriving them of the huge unaccounted source of money, which they were minting since decades.

Xi Jinping’s Crackdown on Chinese Army’s Inhuman Organ Transplant Industry and Military Medical Empire

China’s powerful Central Military Commission, whose head is President Xi Jinping ordered PLA in April 2016 to hand of medical business to civilian authorities. Many health activists and workers were demanding the same since long back as PLA run hospitals were in a spot for their illicit organ trade. In 2012 Chinese magazine started publishing reports on organising organ transplant racket operated my military hospitals. It has opened the can of worms placing People’s Liberation Army in a spot. In a country like China where information dumped behind iron curtains, it was unbelievable to see series of disclosures blaming military hospitals in a direct manner. Everyone in China believed that it was Xi Jinping who managed these disclosures to create strong foundations for crackdown and dismantling of Military Medical Industry! With a single move, Jinping put himself in a grave risk of being toppled by PLA in a staged military coup, for his bold move to choke jugular vein of mighty PLA commanders which have enjoyed unchecked financial and operational powers from Communist leaders to buy their loyalty.

De-militarization of medical facilities in China has far reaching consequences on Communist- PLA relationship and the move has placed Xi Jinping in direct collision with PLA generals.

Organ Donors Stockpiling: All independent investigations conclusively zeroed into Chinese Military as the sole owner of organ donor supply industry in China. Military detained political prisoners and killed them on demand to extract their vital organs for transplant industry.

While investigating the persecution of spiritual sect Falun Gong under Communist Chinese regime, many activists from the USA and Europe called hospitals in China under the guise of the person in seeking organ replacement and transplant. While answering the calls, the agents and doctors in China responded them with a full guarantee of quality of the organ to be supplied. They even offered them to choose a donor from captivity and operate him/her for necessary organ.

The 301 Military Hospital: China’s military i.e. People’s Liberation Army- PLA had a chain of hospitals under its command. These hospitals were used to do organ transplant surgeries on wealthy local Chinese and foreigners willing to pay for organs transplants. Under normal circumstances, there was nothing objectionable in it. But in China, the donors for organ transplants were political prisoners, such as followers of banned religious sect Falun Gong, Uyghur Muslim separatists or Tibetans held in military or paramilitary prisons for political or freedom related activities.  The 301 Military Base Hospital in Beijing was the frontrunner in this business. In 2015 retired chief surgeon and physician of 301 Hospital Jiang Yanyong told The Cable Television of Hong Kong that his hospital was deeply involved in organ harvesting business from prisoners. In a country like China, where every word spoken on public domain is being monitored and censored, the revelations made by Dr Jiang Yanyong stunned many within and outside China. Many China experts believed that Dr Jiang Yanyong’s shocking exposure on organ harvesting in Chinese military hospitals was carefully planned and blessed from higher ups within Chinese leadership and none other than Xi Jinping ordered this exposure to morally push back PLA leadership. Interestingly Dr Jiang Yanyong was earlier prosecuted and jailed in 2003 for his exposure on cover up of respiratory epidemic disease-SARS by China’s Military Hospitals, which broke out worldwide and not handled properly in China. Many familiar with China affairs feared same fate for whistleblower Dr Jiang for his shocking revelation on multibillion dollar organ transplant industry flourishing within Chinese Military Health ecosystem. Despite his scathing attack on PLA’s organ black market, nothing happened to him, as he had blessings of Chinese president!

The 309 Military Hospital: This is the most shocking story of organised organ harvesting by any military hospital in the world. 309 Military Hospital is in Beijing. The organ trade was so transparent in nature that the hospital website published on its website, that within five years its organ transplant revenue shot up from $4.6 million in 2006 to $35 million in 2010, phenomenal 7 fold growth, at the expense of organs snatched from political prisoners!

‘Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting’, a group dedicated to eradicating medical malpractices including organ black trade reached to the conclusion that jailed followers of banned religious group Falun Gong was on the top of organ donors list.

The group estimated (based on government disclosed data on organ transplants) that some 100,000 deaths or say murders of Falun Gong followers occurred only for organ trade.

A Hong Kong-based NGO, the Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation estimated that the prominent surgeon attached to the 309 Military Hospital, Dr Shi Bingyi, conducted 380 liver transplants and 2,130 kidney transplants surgeries. As a part of military run organ transplant industry!

The 304 Military Hospital: This military hospital was specialised for treating Communist bigwigs in Beijing. This hospital was at the centre of controversy after a report published in the business magazine Caijing regarding Falun Gong detainees and Jiang Jemin campaign against Falun Gong. The reporter of magazine Xu Qianchuan interviewed urologists and surgeons from Hospital 304 and found the murky trade going on in the hospital in fully professional manner. The whole business started and flourished after Jemin’s campaign against Falun Gong.

In July 1999 President Jiang Zemin ordered a crackdown on followers of religious sect Falun Gong. At the same moment, organ harvesting from Falun Gong detainees started in full swing. 610 Office were established countrywide to execute Falun Gong eradication. Dr Torsten Trey of Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting estimated that about 10,000 organ transplantation operations were conducted in China per year.

Investigative journalist Xu Qianchuan attached to business magazine Caijing accessed documents which convincingly proved linkages between agents engaged in selling kidneys and the courts and PLA military hospitals. Xu noted that tonnes of evidence and clues point the finger towards military hospital 304, the trial courts, and the 610 Offices earmarked for Falun Gong control are deeply involved in this well-oiled, illicit organ transplanting business.

The World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong ( WOIPFG), the Falun Gong rights advocacy group in its own investigation found an extensive and disturbing network of organ trade of Chinese Military.  Near about 865 hospitals, 9,500 physicians and surgeons were part of organ harvesting, belonging to 712 hospitals. They were engaged in liver and kidney transplantation. The network was spread across 22 Chinese provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities along with 217 cities.  Military hospitals, para military and armed police force hospitals and vast category other medical facilities. More than 865 Chinese medical agencies were involved in organ harvesting business from living healthy Falun Gong followers.

Organ Trade Centers in China

But the backbone of whole organ transplant trade was Military Hospitals working under the direct command of PLA Commanders. The decisive, lethal blow to this most lucrative business by Xi Jinping placed him in loggerhead with PLA. In days to come the cold war or at some point of time open fight for supremacy cannot be ruled out.

PLA’s General Business Empire

Apart from traditional business verticals like agricultural and animal farms or mining raw materials, PLA had a nearly monopolistic business presence in high-value technology driven areas like telecommunication, transportation, space and satellites industry, consumer goods like bikes and television. The PLA had also enterprises in service sectors like discotheques, hotels, discotheques, shares and securities and real estate. 

During peak commercial activities PLA had 20,000 registered business enterprises under its control with later settled at 15,000 in due course.  Though President Jiang Zemin tried his best to snatch control of PLA held businesses in 1998, it didn’t work because his stature couldn’t enforce the order on the ground and a formidable alliance of PLA officers could ignore it easily.

The fundamental of Mao’s principle that Party is supreme was no more reality in China given the amount of cash and businesses in PLA’s hand. PLA commanders were so powerful with a gun in one hand and treasury keys in another that no party leader could dare to scrap PLA control and influence on Chinese business firms.

After Xi Jinping’s arrival at the help of Chinese Communist Party in November 2012, the scenario drastically changed. He launched a most aggressive campaign in modern Chinese history against huge corruption in Chinese military and party. Simultaneously he ordered the withdrawal of PLA from medical services and all business ventures which Chinese army was running since decades. Practically Chinese generals have become traders than army commanders. Xinping’s sweeping actions against PLA corruption has purged 1600 officers and witnessed complete withdrawal of PLA from commercial activities, converting it into professional fighting force.

Cold War Between Xinping and PLA

Xi Jinping convened a major meeting of top officers in November 2014 to commemorate the 85th anniversary of the historic Gutian Congress, In 1929 Gutian Congress Mao stressed that the ‘Party is absolutely above the military’. Jinping convened his selected 420 senior officers at the small town of Gutian in Fujian Province. This was the first time an after Mao, The Chinese leader convened top military leadership at Gutian. The loud symbolism of Gutian-2014 was to remind, stress and inculcate Mao’s message of Party’s supremacy over the military.

After the vigorous anti-corruption drive, ousting PLA from medical and other commercial and industrial domains by Xi Jinping, both sides are exploring various options to establish supremacy over each other. At present, Jinping is by and largely successful in his efforts and he has pushed back PLA from its November 2012 position, where it was before Xinping regime started. But that might not be same in future. The signs of open discontent between Xi and PLA are tangible.

Visible Signs of Jinping & PLA Rift

Chumur- Ladakh Infiltration by PLA on day one of Jinping’s visit to India on November 17, 2014, shocked Indians. Over 1000 PLA troops intruded in Chumur and Demchok in Ladakh region almost 5 km in Indian border creating tension. The standoff later calmed down after series of flag meetings, but it created diplomatic embarrassment for Chinese president meeting Modi on Indian soil. The attempt was seen as PLA efforts to create problems for Jinping following his moves against PLA on all fronts.

Jinping-Modi meet ruled out during G-20 meeting in Hamburg by Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang in July first week. But actually, Jinping and Modi met during G-20 meeting. It was PLA which forced the statement denying possible Jinping-Modi meet at Hamburg and it was Jinping’s firm resolve to supersede and dominate PLA on foreign policy issues just to reinforce principles of 1929 Gutian Congress Principle of “Party above Military”

Discontent between Jinping and PLA are bound to grow and gap sure to widen in near future. It would be interesting to observe in near future, what turn it takes and who emerges winner of the Chinese Cold War!

Read here Part - 1 

(Part- 03- Reform in PLA

July 25, 2017

A New Afghanistan Strategy

by LAWRENCE SELLIN, PHD July 25, 2017

For sixteen years the United States, NATO and the Afghan security forces have fought a war tactically in a strategic environment that made victory impossible.

We have been fighting the wrong war. The war in Afghanistan is actually in Pakistan.

Current American policy towards Pakistan is one based on extortion, whereby, Pakistan, in exchange for money and a veil of undeserved international legitimacy, permits the resupply of US and NATO troops fighting in Afghanistan, while regulating the battle tempo, adjusting its support for and the flow of Taliban, Islamic State (ISIS), Haqqani network jihadis and other terrorist groups.

To America's embarrassment, it is the foreign policy equivalent of a battered wife pleading for understanding of her abusive husband and the need to address his "insecurities" and create "incentives" for good behavior.

In fact, no amount of reassurance or incentives will prevent Pakistan from using radical Islamic groups both to suppress ethnic and nationalist aspirations within its borders and as an instrument of its foreign policy when it continues to reap the benefits of doing so without any negative consequences.

And it is no secret. Pakistan openly admits that it uses "religious militancy" for national security purposes, such as terrorist attacks in India and deploying the Taliban to control, influence or destabilize Afghanistan.

Nevertheless, Pakistan has pain points, which should be exploited as part of a new Afghanistan strategy designed to win.

1.      Foreign aid to Pakistan - reduce it to a trickle

Even Pakistan's former ambassador to the United States says that a tougher approach needs to be adopted toward his country: "The Bush administration gave Pakistan $12.4 billion in aid, and the Obama administration forked over $21 billion. These incentives did not make Pakistan more amenable to cutting off support for the Afghan Taliban."

Recently, Secretary of Defense James Mattis announced that Pakistan will not receive some $50 million in military reimbursements from the 2016 fiscal year because the Pakistani government has not done enough to fight the Taliban and its allies, such as the Haqqani network.

2.      Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status - cancel it

As a MNNA country, approved by President George W. Bush in 2004, Pakistan became "eligible for priority delivery of defense material, an expedited arms sale process, and a U.S. loan guarantee program, which backs up loans issued by private banks to finance arms exports. It can also stockpile U.S. military hardware, participate in defense research and development programs, and be sold more sophisticated weaponry."

3.      Declaration of Pakistan as a state sponsor of terrorism - advance the House bill through Congress

On September 20, 2016, Congressman Ted Poe (TX-02), the Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Terrorism, along with Congressman Dana Rohrabacher (CA-48), introduced H.R.6069, the Pakistan State Sponsor of Terrorism Designation Act. According to Chairman Poe: "Not only is Pakistan an untrustworthy ally, Islamabad has also aided and abetted enemies of the United States for years.  From harboring Osama bin Laden to its cozy relationship with the Haqqani network, there is more than enough evidence to determine whose side Pakistan is on in the War on Terror."

4.      Durand Line - question its legitimacy

The Durand Line is the arbitrary 1896 border drawn between Afghanistan and Pakistan by British Diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand. Pakistan supports it, Afghanistan rejects it, whereby Pashtun lands currently in Pakistan could be potentially incorporated into Afghanistan to prevent Pakistan from using its Pashtun population as Taliban cannon fodder.

5.      CPEC - undermine it

Pakistan has significant economic incentive to exclude western countries from maintaining any influence in Afghanistan. It is called the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which is part of China's larger Belt and Road Initiative that aims to connect Asia through land-based and maritime economic zones. CPEC is an infrastructure project, the backbone of which is a transportation network connecting China to the Pakistani seaports of Gwadar and Karachi located on the Arabian Sea. That network will be coupled to special economic zones and energy projects for Pakistan. Gwadar is a potential Chinese naval base at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, which will complement another Chinese naval base in Djibouti at the mouth of the Red Sea creating two critical strategic choke points.

6.      Ethnic separatism - encourage it

Probably the greatest of all potential Pakistani pain points is ethnic separatism. You cannot suppress history, ethnicity and culture in order to manufacture a nation simply based on geography, ideology or religion.

Pakistan is an artificial political entity created by the British during the partition of India, founded entirely on the religion of Islam and composed primarily of five ethnic groups that never coexisted, the Bengalis, Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis and Baloch.

The "Islamization" program initiated by Pakistan President Zia-ul-Haq (1977-1988) was specifically designed to suppress ethnic separatism and make Pakistan the global Sunni leader, an effort that eventually led to the proliferation of Islamic terrorist groups within its borders.

If Pakistan continues to use the Taliban and the Haqqani network as instruments of its foreign policy in Afghanistan, the exploitation of ethnic separatism within Pakistan, such as in Balochistan, remains an option. That is, fight an insurgency with an insurgency.

Victory is unattainable in Afghanistan, irrespective of the troop levels, without a change in the strategic environment.

Lawrence Sellin, Ph.D. is a retired colonel with 29 years of service in the US Army Reserve and a veteran of Afghanistan and Iraq. Colonel Sellin is the author of "Restoring the Republic: Arguments for a Second American Revolution ". He receives email at lawrence.sellin@gmail.com.